Legal Challenges to Flood Management

After attending a Castle Debate on Flooding; I have put together a video on some of the legal challenges to flooding. I begin with mentioning a few lines on the lack of clarity and overarching statutory regimes surrounding Flood Management. I then move onto exploring the three basic claim areas that are likely to grow in the future:

1. Flooding caused/exacerbated by neighbours – Nuisance/Rylands v Fletcher
2. Climate change litigation
3. Challenges to public authority flood management

The Politeness Principle

The politeness principle is the concept on how and why we are polite to one another. The first important word to understand is ‘face’. This is the speakers sense of linguistic and social identity. We all have two of these ‘faces’: we have a ‘positive face’ and a ‘negative face’. The positive face is our right to be approved and appreciated, whereas, our negative face is our right not to be imposed upon. We have 4 ways in which we approach this ‘face’.

‘Bald on-record strategy’ – 

this is where we threaten the ‘face’; we do absolutely nothing to be polite and minimize threats to the listeners’ face.

Positive politeness-

we appeal to the positive face and we appreciate and accept the listener as well as using politeness markers to ask of something to the listener.

Negative politeness – 

here we recognize the listeners’ negative face and use apologies and politeness markers to say something to the listener.

Off-record indirect strategy- 

is were we either use hints to communicate something or you rather just leave it and wait for someone else to say it.

Connectives & Conjunctions

The Transcript

So why should one be aware of connectives and utilise them?

Connectives are important because they allow you to make longer and more complex sentences. It helps the readers/listener understand how your two points connect together. They are also particularly important in professional environments because they show you are well-read and have more knowledge.

So in a nutshell conjunctions the help you elongate a sentence by adding clauses and phrases. However, this is done four different ways hence there are four different types of connectives.

  1. Additive– This is in essence the most simplest type. This adds details to your sentence which are not necessary for the reader/listener to know even though you may want them to know it. Examples of this include ‘and’  ‘also’.
  2. Temporal – This is another way to prolong your sentence but is done by adding details which are time-related. Examples of these include ‘after’ ‘then’
  3. Adversative – This is extremely important when balancing points and relating two opposing points. So for example if you are describing impacts of a heatwave you cannot just say it was good because it brought plenty of tourists in. People died. You need a word to replace that full stop to show how they connect. Examples include ‘however’ ‘but’
  4. Casual- This is another way in which we relate two sentences. However, this time it is done through explanation. Examples include ‘because’ ‘therefore’

Linking Texts

When linking texts for an English exam: one must be aware of the 6 ways to do this.

1. Pragmatics – the context and time factor involved with each piece; which pieces are in the context and    which are different?

2. Lexis– the semantic fields, difficulty of vocabulary and types of word used the most – are they similar in that way or do the texts differ when it comes to words?

3. Grammar- Look at the grammatical cohesion of the pieces, do they have grammatical devices like antithetical parallelism or synonymous parallelism? Or maybe more sophisticated devices like Chiasmus. What are the sentence structure and why? What is the most popular word class and why? So for example if one text contain more abstract nouns and one contain more concrete nouns is it because one is aimed at a more intellectual audience?

4. Phonology– If you read the pieces aloud what kinds of sounds would you hear? Would one be more aggressive because it has more plosive consonants whereas the other may sound different because it is full of sibilance  and does this fit in with their contents?

5. Discourse structure – What is structure of the piece? Look at the paragraphs? Is it in chronological order? How are they similar and how do they differ?

6. Graphology– What is appearance of the text? Typography? Use of images? How is it suited to its audience?

Those are the 6 major linguistic frameworks!


Parallelism is phonological device where sentence structures are balanced out. Parallelism helps strengthen connections between two words or phrases.

There are two main types:

1. Antithetical parallelism: The thought of the first line is expressed by the antithesis in the second; or is counterbalanced by a contrast in the second.

For example: ‘It is easy to send complain but difficult to receive complains.’ Or another example is ‘And so my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.’

2. Synonymous parallelism: The thought of the first line is expressed by the same thought or repeatition of the same words in the second line.

For example: ‘Our lives were ruined and our existence was destroyed‘ or ‘A man’s belly shall be satisfied with the fruit of his mouth; with the increase of his lips he be filled‘ [Proverbs 18:20]