Approaches to abortion + Right to a child
Ultimately, as discussed in a previous post ethical theories accept or reject abortion on the basis of what they consider the status of the embryo to be.
The tradition Roman Catholic view is the life begins at conception so abortion is absolutely always wrong. Furthermore, the Sanctity of Life argument is used to demonstrate this.
One of the primary precepts in Natural Law is life hence we have a duty to protect and abortion goes against this and again is deemed incorrect.
Natural Law only permits the act of abortion (although it is not discussed as abortion) when we have to use the principle of double affect. When two actions conflict a second criteria is used in Natural Law and that is (i) the action must not be immoral and (ii) the intentions must be good. So if a pregnant women discovers she has cervical cancer the doctor may terminate the pregnancy by performing a hysterectomy because performing a hysterectomy to protect the women’s life is not immoral and the doctors intention is not to kill the foetus but rather save the mother. This would be fine for those who subscribe to Natural Law.
-By using the Sol principle and clearly saying life begins at conception, ethic is straightforward and clear.
-Allows flexibility as well as a clear cut approach.
- If a pregnancy will lead to unhappiness on the mother’s part and there is a threat of depression etc as this is an unwanted baby then sure the principle of double affect would kick in and suggest that abortion is fine with the intention of protecting the mother.
- If you do not accept that life begins and conception and Christian teachings then this theory is not one worth abiding by.
- Again we can argue against this using GE Moore’s naturalistic fallacy just because abortion is wrong or life begins at conception it doesn’t mean we ought to not do it or abortion is wrong.
The right to a child
Reproduction, is of course a significant aspect to being a natural law theorist. However, this does not imply that everyone has a right to a child, the outcome of reproduction, they have a right to try to procreate.
One of the reasons why a couple does not have a right to a child is because the various methods such as surrogacy and AID threaten the sanctity of marriage which as Aquinas said is one of the important constructs of society. It also enables homosexual couples to have babies which is unnatural and opposed by the Natural Law theory.
Another primary precept is ordered society and some of the artificial techniques used to get the child involve a child having theoretically several parents which may result in mental problems and a loss of identity and this is a threat to the ordered society in which we live in.
Kant has no clear opinion on the this matter but supporters of Kantian Ethics argue that the embryo is a potential human and hence the same ethical reasoning should be applied when looking at humans so abortion is wrong. However, if the moral status of an embryo is not a person then abortion is acceptable.
The right to a child
Kant would not agree that we have a right to a child because a parent does not have a right to a real live child then how can a person have a right on a hypothetical child.
– If a child is born in response to a person’s emotional needs then it is being used as a means to an end not end in itself.
-Reason is King so one must be taken adrift with emotion, this is immoral
In general all forms of utilitarianism would be in favour of abortion because it always women to have a choice as well as unwanted pregnancies in general lead to nothing but pain which is what a utilitarian seeks to avoid.
Right to a child
Right to a child is a little bit more difficult to say that utilitarianism would be in favour because of the vast amount of factors a utilitarian would have to consider here are some.
– joy of parents
– benefits may be unknown such as if the child turns out to discover an important theory
– Women are given the choice to sell their reproductive organs
– Financial benefits to surrogate
– harm to unborn child if surrogate mother fails to take care of herself
– No way of avoiding medical problems which can affect the individuals involved
– psychological harm to the child of having multiple parents
– Possibility of rejection if child is born handicapped
– What if surrogate bonds with baby?
– Surrogate mother could black mail parents?
As we can see it is really difficult to work out a utilitarian answer to this ethic dilemma. We can however look at past experiences in this matter and create generalised rules which would follow Mill’s rule utilitarianism which one would guess would be in favour for couples having a right to a child.
Religious Ethics – Here we would use the SoL principle