Urban Regeneration – 2012 Olympics in east London

Urban Regeneration

These questions have been taken from the DVD film ‘Urban Regeneration – the London 2012 Olympics’ from ‘Education with vision’. 

WHY WE WON THE BID?

What does the Forman and Sons factory do?

    H Forman and Sons is a smoked salmon manufacturing firm which provides the centre of London with smoked salmon. Some of their customers include Harrods and other top London restaurants.

What does it gain from its location in east London?

Access to the city and labour!

Why is there so much manufacturing employment in east London?

East London is known as a manufacturing hub because it is exposed to cheap land, easy access to the city and labour. The land is also flat allowing factories to be built easily.

What happened to east London between the 1850s and the mid 20th century?

East London became a world centre for manufacturing in the 1850s. This was because there was a skilled workforce available, links to railway and ships and flat land. It was home to manufacturing of the textile, food, engineering, chemical industries e.g. N G Rifles. The 1900s saw an influx of migrants come in search of work and the economy of east London continued to prosper. Then from 1914 to 1918 World War 1 broke out. East London was bombed in 1917 because of WW1 leaving much destruction. Then around the 1920s, global depression hit the world due to the war and east London begun to decline. To add to this declination – further unemployment was caused by cheaper imports and automation to much of the industry in east London. From unemployment the negative multiplier hit and the area became derelict.

What were the effects of industrial growth on east London’s population?

Industrial growth attracted migrants from all over the globe. These migrants were particularly male and young. This made the population more young and diverse although there were more men then women.

Why did East London’s employment begin to decline?

I already explained about employment begun to decline from the 1914 to circa 1950s. Between the 25 year gap from 1950 to 1975 more than 40,000 jobs were lost. Eventually in the early 1980s the docks finally closed. If people had not done so, then they did it now, they migrated away.

Describe the effects of decline on east London’s population.

The migrants that had one made the town young and diverse fled. Many of the once economically active Britons fled too. This left many of the elderly who did not have the energy to flee. 

Outline what the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) achieved.

The LDDC worked for roughly 20 years. They begun regenerating the area in 1981; 25,000 new homes were built, private investment was attracted, London City Airport opened in 1987, ExCel centre was planned and eventually built, Canary Wharf helped create 82,000 jobs, the jubilee line was extended and the DLR (Docklands Light Railway) was created.

Why does Norman Turner say this was ‘not something we would ever want to repeat’?

Norman Turner, a member of Newham Borough Council, says that Canary Wharf was ‘not something we would ever want to repeat’ because it lacked social engagement and community participation. These factors are key for sustainability and the success for the locals.

What problems does east London face, compared to other areas of the city?

East London has the highest unemployment yet average salary of £100,000 in 2007. Even though the LDA (London Docklands Agency) created 100,000 new jobs the only ones on offer for locals were cleaners and security guards. The fundamental problem here is that regeneration in the past whether it be St Katherine’s Dock or Canary Wharf was done for others i.e. tourists or city worker not the locals.

What is Newham’s population like (its age, social characteristics)?

Newham has the most youngest and diverse population in the whole of London. 41% are under 24. However, it also has the highest proportion of 1 parent families hence people are not able to work and rely on benefits.

What are the main housing issues in the borough?

25% of houses in Newham are overcrowded because there is a lack of affordable housing. 

What environmental problems does the borough face?

Newham faces many environmental problems some include; illegal dumping in Lea Valley, litter from food packaging, contaminated soil and toxic waste left all over the borough.

What will the Olympics do about these?

The hope is with the 2012 Olympics planes, land will be decontaminated, brownfield sites will be revitalised and sustainable legacy will form.

ECONOMIC REGENERATION

What evidence is given that businesses were doing well before the Olympic bid?

Before the Olympic bid there was much evidence that businesses were doing well. The area was already regenerating and there were plans to build a mega shopping mall called ‘Stratford city’ in 2007.However, this was put off in 2005 when London won the Olympic bid. One of the ways in which the area has already started attracted private investment – it was offering grants for businesses to locate there. For example H Forman and Sons were given a grant to locate there in the first place.

What is ‘Stratford city’? How did the Olympics change what was to happen there?

Stratford city was the planned shopping centre that was going to open in 2007. After the Olympics this site is now used for the Olympics venue. 

What does the Olympic park consist of?

Eurostar airport (Stratford City), Aquatic centre, Stadium, Olympic Village  – housing etc and a Velodrum.

H Forman and other companies aren’t happy about the Olympics. Why is this?

This is because they believe they area was already regenerating with grant assistance etc. Therefore, they firstly don’t believe the benefits of the Olympics will out weight the costs. In addition, H Forman is 1 of 250 companies being demolished to make way for the new park. They are being told to relocate. However, the Olympics has caused value in land price hence making it difficult to move somewhere close by and if they move far on cheap land then it will make it harder for workers to come in (travel disruption).

How have companies been persuaded to move out of the Olympic park area?What have been the good and bad points about this?

They have been told that the influx of private investment into the area will help their business prosper. Each company has also been given financial help to relocate. Some say the difficulties that firms still face to relocate (due to high land prices) is having an adverse effect on Newham’s economy. Authorities are still doing their best they have even cut down the size of the park.  Overall, the net increase in jobs is immense hence the business we feel sorry to say bye to now is insignificant compared to the promised economic success to the area.

SOCIAL REGENERATION

In what ways are the people of east London worse off than others in the city?

They are having to relocate their homes and jobs and there is possibility they may never be able to live there again! 

What is Clays Lane like? What is to be built there? Why is this so controversial?

Clays Lane is ‘affordable housing’ and is home to 450 people. It doesn’t look particularly attractive but it helps provide good quality housing for those who are in the low income bracket.The new Olympics housing is now being built there. This is controversial because to a certain it is like St. Katherine’s  Dock where regeneration did not happen for the local community.  Also, in Sydney similar housing was said to be built for the Olympics and then passed onto locals however because the government ran out of money they had to sell all the housing off to private investors and locals are worried this might happen again.

What difficulties do local people face at Clays Lane?

Finding social housing in nearby areas so that they can still reach their job and this is not easy as not much housing nearby is social housing and there is a huge demand.

ENVIRONMENTAL REGENERATION

What is the ‘Lea Valley Regional Park Authority’? What was its aim?

The Lee Valley Regional Park Authority  is a statutory body responsible for managing and developing the 26 mile long Lee Valley Regional Park. It aims to regenerate this derelict area of land to high quality public open space and wildlife habitats as well as preserving historical value. 

What is wrong with some parts of the Lea Valley now?

Many parts of the Lea Valley are heavily polluted and used as dumping grounds. The river also used to flood often before the Thames Flood Barrier was constructed.

How will the Olympics help to improve the Lea Valley?

It has given the authority a new opportunity to continue develop the park in a faster way. It has also been given funding to the authority for the regeneration of the river and park.

What is happening to the electricity pylons in the Olympic area? Why? The Olympics will create a huge ‘carbon footprint’. What does this mean?

There are many electrical pylons in Newham in preparation of the Olympics they are being dismantled and wires are being placed underground. This is quite an expensive procedure. Many suggest the Olympics will create a huge ‘carbon footprint’, this means the Olympics will create a huge emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

What is happening to wildlife in the area? Why?

Wildlife e.g. newts are being collected and relocated onto the new site. This is to prevent any harm to wildlife in this regeneration process.

What is happening to the contaminated soil?

Soil in this area is contaminated it contains chemicals such as Mercury and cyanide. Rather than replacing the soil, the soil is being cleaned and put back onto the ground which is being landscaped. They are flattening the land to make it look natural.

What is happening to the building rubble produced?

Much of the building rubble produced is being recycled and reused. 90% of materials being used in this project are from sustainable sources e.g. they are recycled materials.

What does the term ‘legacy’ mean concerning the Olympics?

Legacy is what the Olympics leaves behind e.g. jobs, sporting facilities, new environments etc.

A  SUSTAINABLE LEGACY?

Who are ‘Streets of Growth’?

An organisation that encourage young people to create their own cohesive solutions, instead of their own socially isolating problems.

What are they trying to achieve?

They are trying to get the local community especially young people involved in the regeneration of Newham and Tower Hamlets.

What does the phrase ‘the Games will only be a lasting success if people have a chance’ mean about east London?

This means that unless you involve local people then they the so called benefits we hope to see after the Games will not be achieved because people will not care or put effort to make this happen as they feel they weren’t given a pay so why should they bother.

Male conversations

Male (single sex) conversations

Can you guess who is speaking in this transcript? Analyse the dialogue below.

B:

Uh you know that really gay guy in our Age of Revolution class who sits in front of us? He wore shorts again, by the way, it’s like 42 degrees out he wore shorts again[laughter] it’s like a speedo, he wears a speedo to class he’s got incredibly skinny legs, you know

E:

You know like those shorts women volleyball players wear?  It’s like those it’s like French cut spandex

B:

You know what’s even more ridiculous? When you wear those shorts and like a parka on

C:

He’s either got some condition that he’s got to like have his legs exposed all the time or else he’s got really good legs

E:

He’s probably he’s he’s like he’s like at home combing his leg hairs

C:

He really likes his legs

B:

He doesn’t have any leg hair though

E:

He really likes his legs

A:

Very long very white and very skinny

B:

Yes and oh those ridiculous Reeboks that are always (indecipherable) and goofy white socks always striped tube socks

E:

He’s the antithesis of man

The point of reading this  transcript is that to any normal person they features and the nature of the transcript means that is appears to be a group of females However, actually this was a group of males. This research came from Deborah Cameron, who basically believed you can never know – males and females are very similar.

So what features did we find in this transcript?

 

  • Intensifiers ‘incredibly’
  • Fixed expressions ‘you know’
  • Filer ‘like’
  • Specialised vocabulary ‘French cut spandex’
  • Support 
  • Empty adjective ‘ridiculous’
  • Knowledge of female topic – apparel ‘Reeboks’
  • Initiation
  • Cooperative
  • Bitchiness 
  • Hedging ‘its like’
  • repetition ‘really likes his legs

 

 

Cinnamon Soho Review

I have recently founded a Dining Club with am to try as many new restaurants around London and to have fun! The first event was help at Cinnamon Soho, which is a not so new venture by celebrity chef Vivek Singh which brings together Indian Cuisine in an anglo light i.e. it is a fusion between Indian and English. Unlike their other restaurants, Cinnamon Soho provides a more casual place to dine over two floors in the mid-price range. In this post I thought I would talk about my experience of running a group dinner party with them and the food! (I wish I took photos in hindsight!).

Juggling a party of 20 is not easy, but I found the service by Cinnamon Group and the care in which the dealt with the booking very impressive. They required a deposit of 25% of the minimum spend which is subtracted from your total bill. In return, we were given the whole basement floor with a restaurant representative that came to tell us about the group. I liked their level of service as I was quite nervous, my first time organising a professional dinner of this size, and they were always there to answer my queries as well as amend restrictions such as total bill has to be paid by a maximum of 4 cards. They also allowed us to have different seatings plans per course, which many restaurants had a problem with.

We opted for the £25 per head menu called the “Soho Joho” and had a special rate of £5 for any cocktail because of the size of our group. The food was good, but personally I prefer Dishoom or Kricket as I didn’t think there was enough spice/masala. Others found the food to be too spicy or just the right amount, so I guess it is one of those hit/miss things. For me as an Indian though, I’d like the dishes to have more flavour or to be more innovative in the way that we see in other restaurants.

In our menu the starters came shared, which was a good way to encourage networking among the group and to try a range of their dishes. Our shared starters included:

Green Pea Hummus with Flatbread

This was delicious, but we did not feel it tasted largely different to normal hummus. It would’ve been great to have more green pea in it.

Crab & Curry Leaf Balls

This is one of their most popular starters and it is simply divine, I really enjoyed this. The crab comes through quite strong and there is a lot of flavour and fragrance in this starter.

Indo-Chinese Style Chicken

This was my favourite dish, the spice are very strong. It has a beautiful fragrance of burnt chillies and the chicken is tender. I definitely recommend this and the crab balls as starters.

Quinoa Salad

This quinoa salad is accompanied with watermelon and hoisin sauce is a bit of a dark horse, it sticks out because it isn’t necessarily indian, english or ubiquitous combination. However, combined with the Indo-Chinese Chicken & the Crab and Curry Leaf Balls it was a delight. The dish offered a cool and refreshing contrast to the other dishes and was a real success.

Garlic & Plain Naan

There isn’t very much to say about this dish, it was simply a naan. There was no special flavour or taste to it, the way in which the Masala Kulcha at Kricket is. It went down well with the food.

For mains, everyone was allowed to individually order their dish and there was a selection of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes on offer. The most popular dish among our group was the Old Delhi style chicken curry with rice. I did not opt for this main, but did try it and the consensus among most people was that it was too fiery.  

I went for the Paneer 65 which is a stir fry paneer with chillies and curry leafs (yes they love curry leafs at Cinnamon!). The dish was a bit dry and I don’t think ordering a naan or rice on the side would have improved it. I think I would need a more wet curry or vegetable dish to accompany it. Also, as it is just paneer it can get a bit much without anything to break it. Again like the dish, the paneer was pretty spicy. Perhaps the quinoa salad would make a grand accompaniment to the dish!

There is also a good selection of dessert, something that even Dishoom seem light on. I opted for a plum cake, however, I don’t think that is what  I got (!)  The others who went for the plum cake got a tart of some sort with a plum topping. I received a chocolate based tart with berries (not complaining!). The dessert was my favourite part and I could’ve eaten too, it was simply chocolate-y and divine!

All in all a great venue for group parties, the staff were attentive and co-operative. I think the food works really well where you order the right thing like the Indo-Chinese Chicken, overall I would give a 4.5* out of 5 rating!

Language and Gender Key Terms

All the following definitions have been taken out the textbook ‘AS AQA English Language B’. This is a textbook so I am sure it is ok to use this information however if you are stating these definitions anywhere other than an exam remember to source it – it is not your information! That is only some definitions – many are made by me.

A

Actor: the individual or entity responsible for the action of a verb process.

Affected: the person or entity affected by a material action process.

B

Boosting device: a linguistic device used to intensify the force of an expression for added emphasis or power e.g. ‘really’

C

Covert marking: marking that is understood e.g. in the antonyms young and old which can be used to ask someone their age so e.g. ‘how old are you?’ ‘how young are you?’ young is the marked and old is the unmarked.

Covert prestige: a form of high status given to non-standard forms.

D

Deixis: Context-dependant word.

E

Ellipsis: missing out words in a sentence.

F

Folklinguistics: attitudes and assumptions about language that have no real evidence to support them e.g. the assumption that women are generally more ‘chatty’ or prone to gossiping than men.

G

Gender: the differences in behaviours and roles that are a result if societal expectations.

H

Hedging device: a linguistic device used to express uncertainty e.g. ‘kind of’

I

Intonational emphasis: This is where we emphasis on words with the tone of our voice e.g. by making it go high or low.

J

Jargon: specialised lexis

K

Known-answer question: this is when the person asking the question already knows the answer.

L

Labov: William Labov put together six narrative categories which people follow when they are telling an anecdote.

M

Marked form: that which stands out as different from a norm.

N

Negative face: this is our right not to be imposed upon.

O

Overt marking: marking that takes place through affixation or modification.

p

Positive face: this is our right to be accepted and approved.

Q

R

Representation: the projection of a certain way of thinking about a particular individual, group or institution through the use of language.

S

Semantic derogation: the sense of negative meaning or connotation that some lexical items have attached to them e.g. Mistress. 

Semantic deterioration: the process by which negative connotations become attached to lexical items.

Sex: biological differences between males and females.

Socialisation process: a process by which individuals’ behaviours are conditioned and shapes.

Stereotyping: assigning a general set of characteristics to a group as a whole, often with negative connotations.

T

Tag questions: a group of words that turn a declarative into an interrogative e.g. ‘It’s cold’ becomes ‘It’s cold isn’t it?’

U

Unmarked form: the measured norm, against which marked lexical items can be compared.

V

Vocative: adress e.g. ‘you’ ‘Ben’

W

X

Y

Z

Global Distribution of Cyclones

Cyclones

Quick Summary 

What are cyclones?

Cyclones are extreme versions of depressions. The pressure is so low that dangers caused by this weather system are deadly compared to a depression. Cyclones have other names e.g. the are called ‘hurricanes’ in the West, ‘Typhoons‘  in oriental Asia and ‘Willy willy’ in Oceania.

Why do they occur?

If we are looking at hurricanes in America then they tend to start off in places like the sub-Saharan African continent. Geographers  are not sure the exact cause but small disturbances in atmosphere over land and start of a low pressure system of thunderstorms. As this weather system travels west over the warm pacific ocean it gains energy and all the thunderstorms start swirling around the eye – the area with the lowest pressure. As this system moves on land it releases its energy through precipitation and strong winds up to crazy speeds like 176mph and even higher. However, it doesn’t last too long as it looses its energy on land as there is no warm water from the ocean evaporating.

What conditions are required for them to take place?

  1. Warm tropical oceans where sea temperatures are at least 27 degrees 
  2. Oceans where the depth is at least 60m.
  3. Late summer and early autumn where sea temperatures are at their highest
  4. The area of the trade wind belt between latitudes 5 degrees and 20 degrees on either side of the equator
  5. Wind speeds need to be constant between ground level and 12km above ground level.

How are they measured?

The Saffir-Simpson scale is used to measure hurricanes. It gives each hurricane a rating between 1 and 5. It basis the rating according to the wind speed, storm surge and damage. The rating each hurricane is given is called ‘category’. Hurricane Katrina was so intense that it had a rating of category 5 on this scale. Below I have put the rating table:

Category

Sustained winds (mph)

Storm surge

Damage

1

74-96

4-5 feet

Minimal

2

96-110

6-8 feet

Moderate

3

110-130

9-12 feet

Extensive

4

131-155

13-18 feet

Extreme

5

>155

>18 feet

Catastrophic

Where do they happen – the global distribution?

So it is quite clear the global distribution is limited because of the large criteria required for hurricanes to form. Hurricanes occur in equatorial areas in the latitudes of 5 degrees to 20 degrees to either side of the equator. This includes regions such as the Gulf of Mexico, the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. Any coastal area in this latitude which is surround by warm water is at risk of experiences cyclones.

When do they occur most often?

They occur in the months of late summer and early autumn. This usually in the months of July to November in the Northern Hemisphere and December to May in the Southern Hemisphere.