Sex; biological facts about men and women
Gender; (1) grammatical groupings (2) characters based on their sex
Representation; constructing stories from language (including images) about what people are like
Deficit model; It suggests that women need to change because their language is not good enough
- According to research e.g. Fishman 1990, it is found that the average amount of time for which a man will speak has found to be approximately double the amount a women speaks, especially in mixed-sex conversations.
- A women’s approach to conversation tends to be co-operative, whereas a man’s approach tends to be competitive.
- American researchers Zimmerman and west (1975) taped several case studies. One of the big findings was that men interrupted 96% of the time whereas women only interrupted 4%. Analysis of parent-child conversations shows that fathers tend interrupt the mode and more to daughters than sons. I believe this is because our society still has stains of the old society where sons were more important and valuable than daughters.
- Topical differences between men and women exist. Simply, women talk more about ‘feelings’ and men talk more about ‘things’