Globalisation – The winners and the losers
What is globalisation?
Globalisation is the process by which people, culture, goods, services, money and information can be transferred between countries with few or no barriers.
How can it have social effects?
By encouraging technological advances and providing and goods that were once not produced in countries e.g. mangos in the UK we can raise living standard. Furthermore, now people had more knowledge of other cultures and lifestyles which can be good but for some countries isn’t as they are afraid to loose their cultural identity.
How can it economic effects?
In developing countries it has really initiated economic growth on a large scale. It has also provide incomes for countries that never had any constant source of income. It has provided jobs for many and encouraged spending in these local economies. However, many workers are still exploited e.g. child labour, paying under minimum wage, demand extremely low prices from suppliers etc.
How can it have environmental effects?
The realise of CO2 emissions has encourage climate change which causes adverse effects like Arctic ice melting and forcing species like polar bears to extinction. However, this also spurred of countries to work together e.g. In 2008 178 countries had signed the Kyoto Protocol and other global treaties are always being formed in regards to the environment.
How can it have political effects?
So as mentioned in the environmental effects questions, countries have taken initiatives to work together and this has help build better political relations. However, sometimes there may be disagreements between trade problems etc which can lead to conflict.
CASE STUDY: CHINA
- From 1949 – 1976 Mao Zendong kept China communist and closed from the rest of the world. So when he died they started to lean towards the capitalist side and an ‘Open Door Policy’ was implemented to get investment from overseas.
How has it grown so fast?
- China had many resources such as water (Yangtze river), oilfields, coal fields and gas fields. What is interesting at the time when places like the UK begun to develop through the discovery of coal China could not because the coal field were water stores like streams and transportation became a problem. So now with technological help they are able to extract and transport resources.
- So not just natural resources China has a large and fit population which could produce many goods and services.
- The workforce was also skilled because of increased spending in healthcare and education.
- Demand from Western countries and the development of TNCs has increase China’s export market.
- The creation of industrial Export Processing Zones has stimulated cheap mass manufacture.
Impacts of industrialisation and globalisation…
- Air quality is bad- so bad that in 2005 it did not even reach the government’s own safety standard
- Hills are being flattened to accommodate new commerce.
- China’s rivers and lakes are polluted e.g. the Yangtze river which 1 in 12 people in the world rely , has such polluted tributaries that it is not fit for irrigation.
- Deforestation has increased e.g. 85% of trees along Yangtze river have been cleared causing erosion and dust storms.
- Acid rain is on the increase.
- Many of the poor or people who work in primary and secondary sector work and usually exploited and forced to live in overcrowded squatter settlements.
- Hyper-urbanisation from rural to urban areas is taking places at scale unimaginable.
- Poverty levels are not improving e.g. 360 million people do not have access to clean drinking water.
- Money is now being spent on developing infrastructure like roads etc through increase tax revenue
What about India and other BRIC countries?
India and other BRIC countries too are suffering with similar consequences of globalisation and both have winners and losers. India for instance has made some farmers worse off as no investment of business come from the rural countryside and at the same time the young women of India are being given the chance to be independent work and earn enough money to make their parents faint.
These countries are the nest superpowers and will take over countries such as Germany in terms of economic power and strength. So watch out!