- He believed that something is good if it fulfils its purpose. For example, a plate is ‘good’ if it fulfils its purpose to serve food.
- This is based on Aristotle’s ideas of causality.
- As everything has a Final Cause, it is possible to determine what is ‘good’ by examining the organism’s apparent purpose.
- The basis of the Roman Catholic morality is Natural Law which was put forward by Aquinas. Aquinas married that ideas of Aristotle to Christian Theology.
- Aristotle spoke of eudaemonia, ‘greatest good’ or spiritual satisfaction. This good comes about through self-realisation and fulfilment of human potential.
- The eudaemonia is achieved through exercising the virtues, which would not only seek pleasure but knowledge and spiritual satisfaction.
Here is a short video on situation ethics – below are some more detailed notes!
- Situation Ethics is a relativist theory of ethics. The only principle which is used when determining morality in this theory is ‘Love your neighbor as yourself’.
- ‘Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails.’ 1 Corinthians 13. This quote is just one example of how the new Testament promotes this idea that love is the best way to respond to everything.
- Fletcher, an American Theologian, promoted this idea of situation ethics in an influential book written in the 60s.
- Situation works by first look at individual situations and applying general principles to them. The key in this type of ethics is love.
- In other words, whatever situation we are faces with we should do the most loving thing.
- But what is love? There are 4 different types according to the Greeks: PHILOS -friendship, STORGE -family love, EROS- erotic love and AGAPE – selfless love.
- The reason why Fletcher believed in situation ethics and dismissed Natural Law is because he believed the individual concerned is more important than the action and every situation should be judged according to its own context.
- Situation ethics is a branch of Christian ethics. The Christian God is personal one therefore Situation Ethics claims that morality too should be person-centered and as far as the conscious is concerned it is used to formulate the decision in each circumstance. Decisions are made situationally!
- Situation ethics is mid way between 2 extremes: ANTINOMIANISM – no rules, principles etc. which is a recipe for moral disorder and LEGALISM- rule based moral systems where rules become more important than people.
- Nothing is good in it self except AGAPE
- Jesus and St Paul replaced the torah with AGAPE
- Love and justice are compatible
- Love wills the goods of thy neighbor
- Love is the end that is sought – agape is a consequentialist ethic
- Love’s decisions are made according to each individual context.
- Dangers that we miss the big picture – immediate responses may not be the most loving thing in the long term.
- It is not structured – there is no collective ethical framework.
- Our emotions can cloud our judgement making it hard to see if we are acting out o f love.
- What is the most loving thing to do for one person may not be the most loving thing for someone else.
- Can human nature really allow us to act out of unselfish Christian love.
In this example I want to explore the different forms of whistle blowing. The first and one of the most famous is called the Watergate scandal.
The last famous example I will discuss in this article is one of Dr David Kellywhich didn’t end as happily as the others.