Connectives & Conjunctions

The Transcript

So why should one be aware of connectives and utilise them?

Connectives are important because they allow you to make longer and more complex sentences. It helps the readers/listener understand how your two points connect together. They are also particularly important in professional environments because they show you are well-read and have more knowledge.

So in a nutshell conjunctions the help you elongate a sentence by adding clauses and phrases. However, this is done four different ways hence there are four different types of connectives.

  1. Additive– This is in essence the most simplest type. This adds details to your sentence which are not necessary for the reader/listener to know even though you may want them to know it. Examples of this include ‘and’  ‘also’.
  2. Temporal – This is another way to prolong your sentence but is done by adding details which are time-related. Examples of these include ‘after’ ‘then’
  3. Adversative – This is extremely important when balancing points and relating two opposing points. So for example if you are describing impacts of a heatwave you cannot just say it was good because it brought plenty of tourists in. People died. You need a word to replace that full stop to show how they connect. Examples include ‘however’ ‘but’
  4. Casual- This is another way in which we relate two sentences. However, this time it is done through explanation. Examples include ‘because’ ‘therefore’

An Introduction to Religious Language

What is religious Language?
Religious Language = Specialist religious vocabulary as well as religious, moral and ethical claims.
What are the uses and purposes of religious language?
Religious Language has three functions.
  1. To Expressive: They are used to express feelings and emotions. Peter Donovan argues that religion encourages to discipline their emotions in the right direction e.g. forgive wrong-doers. 
  2. To Performative: To perform an event e.g. a wedding.
  3. To Prescribe: To encourage or prevent people from acting in a certain way.
Difficulties with religious language
  1. It is subjective
  2. Difficult to describe something so out of this world and immaterial.
  3. Is humanizing an effective mechanism of describing something immaterial.
  4. Language is sometimes used univocally. (This means the words used to describe God mean exactly the same as when words are used to describe humans). However, is it fair to say that when we call God faithful we mean the same as when we call a dog faithful?
  5. If on the other hand we use words equivocally – this means that a word used to describe God does not mean the same as if it was used to describe a human. However, then can we ever know the meaning of a word?
  6. The last problem which this whole unit is about is the meaningless/meaningfulness of religious statements. Religious believers claim that religious language is cognitive i.e. it can be verified or falsified but other philosopher dismiss religion on the basis that it is non-cognitive i.e. you cannot verify or falsify it.

The Basic Economic Problem

The basic economic problem is the problem that in the real world there are scare resources, that is limited quantities of resources and unlimited wants of these resources. Economists have to be able to make distinction between a want or a need in order to see whether they are limited or unlimited. Needs is something humans need for survival e.g. food. Wants are something, which are not needed for survival e.g. an iPod.

Resources have to be allocated which means choices have to made. The basic economic problems means that societies need to decide:
– What to produce
– How to produce it, and
– For whom to produce it

Every time we make a choice we fail to choose another option and the benefit lost from the next best opportunity is called opportunity cost. For example, right now you have chosen to watch this video your opportunity cost might be talking to your friend on the phone.

There are four factors of production that bring some form of output to the world. These are:
1. Land- includes premises and all natural resources e.g. timber, farming
2. Labour – workers and human resources
3. Capital – all manufactured resources e.g. machines, vehicle, building tools
4. Entrepreneurship – Involves risk taking, setting up a new business etc.

Out of production we get to two types of goods: economic goods and free goods. Economic goods are goods that are made from resources, which are scarce like oil. So free goods are goods made from resources, which are not scare like air.

Sustainable resources are those, which can be exploited over and over again because they can renew themselves e.g. sunflowers. In contrast, resources such as coal and oil cannot be replaced therefore are not sustainable.