Costs and Benefits of Sustainable Measures

Climate Change

Costs and benefits of sustainable measures

Strategy

Cost 

Benefit

Energy efficiency 

At the beginning it is expensive and may not as functional as we would like them to be e.g. energy efficient lighting can be dimer than normal lighting. 

Small changes like this is universal and does not take much to implement yet it can have huge advantages in terms of reducing emissions.

Transport reformation e.g. congestion charge

Can be time-consuming and unpopular. Some methods can be expensive for example the congestion charge might have worked but this meant the government had to improve public transport.

The congestion charge cut 25% of traffic so they can be highly effective.

Carbon trading

It is a long and complex method and many countries simply don’t have accurate information or are just not part of this scheme. It has forced some businesses to relocate

Making carbon a commodity and expensive meant that countries did decrease even if a little but of emission while working as a team.

Afforestation

Costly and plants take space and in our overpopulated world is there really space?

Plants have been around for a long time so we know their long term effects and using nature is a popular method.

Renewable energy 

Costly, inefficient and can be visually and noisy polluting. People also have a NIMBY attitude making it harder to implement. 

It is a sustainable methods and it is a god alternative to fossil fuels and we can be sure never to have problems with it (except for ones like nuclear)

Solar Panels

Visually polluting and not all place receive enough sun. Expensive.

Easy way to cut emissions.

Conserve i.e. regulate burning/chopping trees and plants

People can still illegally do it and then we will have problems with trying to measure it.

Doesn’t require any money or anything we just need to put forward a few acts saying this can not be destroyed.

Domestic efficiency e.g. home insulation 

People are reluctant and some people with old homes may feel that the costs to insulate are just too much

It is again a relatively simple method unlike carbon trading yet can save both financially for people and emission. The money saved on bills is a great incentive for people.

Coastal defence

Can be expensive e.g. sea walls are very expensive

By acting in advance we can minimize the impacts felt from climate change

Diversify agriculture

It is not easy to know what to grow in different climate and we are still unsure about the time scales we are talking about.

It allows farmers to still have a career and nations to have a substantial food supply.

GM crops

They are unnatural we still don’t know the long term affects of this on humans.

A great way to food supply in the climatic problems we are faced with e.g. we need food supply even in droughts

House Design

Expensive and is it really practical to re design every single house?

This way it does not lie in the citizens hand whether their house is energy efficient or not.

Better forecasting system

Expensive and we already have many!

Good way to protect ourselves!

Genetic Engineering

Types of Genetic Engineering

In this video I explore – somatic-cell gene therapy, germ-line gene therapy, enhancement genetic engineering (designer babies), eugenic genetic engineering, animal genetic engineering, gm crops, embryo cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning.

Ethical Responses

In this video I look at what would Natural Law, Utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Situation Ethics and Christian Ethics say to the different forms of genetic engineering.

As Christian Ethics is so varied I have not included it in the table below 

 

Natural Law

Utilitarianism

Kant

Situation ethics

Somatic-cell GT

☺ Fulfils precept to live

☺ Produces greatest good for greatest number

☺/☹ Depends on which way you argue it

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Germ-line GT

☺ Again helps fulfil purpose of life and reproduction

☺ Produces greatest good for greatest number

☺/☹ Depends on which way you argue it

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Enhancement GT

☹ Against God’s design and doesn’t seem to have a purpose.

☺  Makes people happy

☹ It doesn’t make other ‘that’ happy

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Eugenic GT

☹ No purpose in editing God’s design

☺/☹ Depends on the   situation 

☺/☹ Depends on which way you argue it

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

GM crops

☺ Help solve problem of world hunger which helps to also fulfil the precept of life.

☺ Solving the problem of world hunger outweighs any costs

☺ Imperfect duty to make people happy 

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Animal GT

☺ Humans have dominion over animals so nothing wrong with using them to fulfill the precept of life.

☺ Produces greatest good for greatest number

☺ Kantian ethics is based on the ability to reason so using animals to fulfil imperfect duty is not a problem.

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Embryo cloning

☺ Life is scared so this would be a NO.

☺/☹ Depends on the   situation 

☺/☹ Depends on which way you argue it

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Reproductive cloning

☹ No purpose in editing God’s design

☺/☹ Depends on the   situation 

☺/☹ Depends on which way you argue it

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.

Therapeutic cloning

☺ Helps fulfill purpose of life – to live.

☺ Produces greatest good for greatest number

☺/☹ Depends on which way you argue it

☺ Can be most loving thing to do but pragmatics and costs have to be taken into account.