Climate Change: Environmental impacts on the environment

Effects  on the sea

Effects on the wildlife

Effects on Land + Vegetation

Positive Ice Albedo Feedback – Sea ice decreased by 14% between 2005-2006 accelerating climate change.

Spread of new species –New species such as spruce bark beetle have come as they can live in these warmer climates. The impacts food chain. The long-term impact of this is unknown.

Tree line moves North – The tree line is the edge of the Arctic habitat where trees grow

Negative multiplier effect – As the sea warms the number of marine plants falls as a negative multiplier effect because this leaves less food for small fish so they decrease and seals which eat them also decreases due to lank of food and this eventually leads to less polar bears and less food for the inuits.

Tundra ecosystem (ecosystems designed to withstand extremely cold conditions) are being lost – These ecosystems are rare and precious

Polar bear hunting season – Spring is the polar bear hunting season but due to melting ice in this seasons they are not able to do this reducing food for them. Hudson Bat which has 450 residents is now ice free for 3 more weeks than 1985.

Melting Permafrost – Permafrost (permanently frozen land) is thawing out and realizing methane accelerating climate change.

Extinction of Polar Bears – females build up body fat in the spring seasons when the ice ‘usually’ melts. Now because more ice melts and for longer the average polar bear loose 80kg making them susceptible to disease and reduces their ability to reproduce and feed their young. This can lead to extinction some scientists say.

Agricultural yield – As summer seasons are longer inuits can farm for longer and increase their agricultural yield

Forest fires – Boreal forests (coniferous) suffer with more forest fires particularly in Arctic Russia.  Vegetation like this are great carbon sinks so it is a shame to loose them.

Estates & Interests in Land

This video covers various estates and interests in land. We look at both legal and equitable interests. The video starts with freeholds, exploring 5 restrictions on such an interests – covenants, easements, nuisances, statutory restraints and licenses. We then explore leaseholds and commonholds. Three types of equitable interests are then explored: licenses, agreements and trusts.

Production Possibility Frontiers (PPFs)

What is a PPF?

A PPF is an economic model which shows all the maximum possibilities of two goods that an economy can produce

Why is the frontier downward sloping?

That as you go further on the frontier you will incur more opportunity cost, which is benefits foregone from the next best opportunity.

How can we calculate oppurtunity cost?

Total given up / total gained
(total given up divided by total gained)

What happens when the frontier is a straight line?

This tells us that the opportunity cost at every point is the same whereas on a curve we see that the opputunoity cost changes as you travel across the curve.

Why the frontier normally bowed outwards?

This is do with the increasing oppurtunity cost. The further you travel on the curve the bigger oppurtunity one has.

Explain why (a) points can be inside of the PPF? (b) points can be outside the PPF?

(a) This can be if resoures are not used to the their optimal level. For example labour is a resource and if unemployment is there then what happens is that the resources are not being used to maximum potential so the economy is working at a point below the optimal level which is depicted on the curve.

(b) This is not possible. It is not possible for an economy to operate at a level outside of the curve because the curve show the maximum points so outside it would be impossible. However, if resources are increased then the curve shifts.

Why does the frontier (a) shift right? (b) shift left?

(a) The frontier as we mentioned before can shift to the right if resources are increased. If resources are increased then there will be a new maximum level as more can be produced therefore the curve shifts right.
(b) The frontier can shif tothe left hand side. If resources can be increased then they can also be decresed too. For example, if a natural disaster takes place then the amount of resources will decreases and this means that optimal levels will decrease too so the curve is shifted inward.


How does resources such as; (a) land (b) labour (c) capital (d) technology increase in order to shift the frontier outward?


(a) Land can be increased in many ways e.g. if brownfield sites are generified, if other countries are invaded or new land like mountains are formed.


(b) Labour can be increased in several ways too e.g. if immigration increases, training/education increases or in the long-term a baby-boom will cause labour increase.


(c) Capital can increase too. Capital goods are things like machinery which in the long term help increase productivity. So investment in new capital, technological advances and automation will lead to this. It is important to recognise that consumer goods will provide short-term wealth to the economy but capital goods will bring long-term wealth.


(d) Technologicl advancement are similar. However, these include factors like if medical equipment is advanced than it will increase labour as people will be more healthy or if a new type of fast transport is invented then it will enable people to get to work faster – increasing output.


Explain how a PPF would be used in the real world?
In the real world PPFs are used with axes being ‘consumer goods’ and ‘capital goods’ as an economy can only make these two types of goods (this is a simplistic view). Analyst would see that if we should or shouldn’t, and if we should then by how much we should invest in capital goods as this will in the long-term increase the output of the country. If for example an economy has just incurred a natural disaster then they would have focus more on consumer goods as demand for them would be higher and they need short-term goods like blankets not long-term capital.
Does the PPF have any disadvantages?
The PPF being an economic model is based on assumption and ceteris paribus. There are three assumptions being made with a PPF and these are:
1. We assume that in an economy there is only two types of goods.
2. That the units measuring one axis are the same units on the other axis. For example if our axis had food and clothes then we are assuming that both are measured in tonnes.
3. We have to also assume that it is over a fixed time period such as a year.
Also, I mentioned above it is based on ceteris paribus, which is all things being kept at a constant. For example if we look at our clothes and food PPF again we will have to take in account that subsidies, taxes etc. are all kept the same so the PPF does not affect it.