7 Tips for data response questions

I¬†have been asked to share some of my tips for writing data response economic questions. I hope this helps! ūüôā

1) Know how many mark question they are e.g. I know in my Jan exam for the Data response there are 4 question and the marks they hold (4, 12,  8 and 16 marks)

2) Know how the marks are split e.g. in unit three except for the 4 mark one they tend to be 50% analysis and 50% evaluation.

3) Know how to split that further so if evaluation is worth 6 marks know that you can discuss two factors worth 3 marks each or 3 factors worth 2 marks each.

4) Once you know this all you need to do is write down you points whether analysis or evaluation to marks you allocated above.

5) It is good to know this structure off by heart, memorise it and use it for planning big questions in exams

6) In terms of analysis, you are defining key terms, applying economic theories such as theory of PED to the question and drawing diagrams.

7) In evaluation all you are doing is saying whether this is different in the long-run, is this an actual realistic thing, other factors that affect what you said in evaluation, ceteris paribus (is it assumed that all factors are equal), prioritising and justifying points, if for example you are talking at tax or subsidy then you can discuss that it depends on the size of the tax for the effects to happen etc.

Kantian Ethics Revision Quiz

Questions (answers below)

1. What Century did Immanual Kant formulate his ethical theory and what nationality was Kant?

 

2. What quote can be used to sum up his theory?

3. Distinguish between the categorical and hypothetical imperative and give examples.

4. Why is the moral law, according to Kant, categorical?

5. How many formulations does he give of the categorical imperative, what are they and why does Kant give them?

6. Explain the formulations of the categorical imperative – what do they mean?

7. How many example of the first formulation are they? and what are they?

8. What is the distinction between duty and inclination?

9. By doing our duty what do we achieve?

10. Give 3 strengths and weaknesses of Kantian Ethics.

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1. 18th C and he was German.

2. ‘Two things, above all others, fill the mind with ever increasing awe and wonder: the starry heavens above and the moral law within”

3. The Hypothetical Imperative looks to an outcome e.g. ‘Do your revision and you will get an A’ and the Categorical Imperative is an absolute command which does not look to an outcome e.g. ‘Do your revision’.

4. Because it was hypothetical it would not be universal – so if it said be moral so you can go to heaven it would be changeable and not universal as some people may not wish to go to heaven.

5. Three: (i) Universalisability (ii) Means to an end and (iii) Kingdom of ends – these are three ways given to understand the same moral law – categorical imperative.

6. Universalisability Рonly commit to an action that if the rest of the world did would be logical and sustainable. Means to an end Рdo not use people as a mere means to an end, rather you should respect and give then the same respect you give yourself. Kingdom of ends Рif as a lawmaker of the world you could put your action into legislation then the action is moral. 

7. 4 – 2 are perfect duties (contradiction in conception) – do not commit suicide and do not commit false-promising and 2 are imperfect duties (contradiction in the will) – fulfil your own potential and gives others happiness.

8. Duty is what we ought to do and inclination is what we want to do (they don’t always conflict).

9. Goodwill because we eliminate selfish interests.

10. See post on strengths & weaknesses. 

Quiz on Act and Rule Utilitarianism

Please find answers below.

1. What is the Hedonic Calculus and another name for it?

2. Distinguish between higher and lower pleasure giving examples.

3. Which utilitarian theory focuses upon the quantity of pleasure and which on the quality of pleasure?

4. What are 4 components of the hedonic calculus?

5. What does Bentham believe is the supreme moral good and Mill? Does Mill agree?

6. If you pick a lower pleasure over a higher pleasure what are you said to have?

7. What is Mill’s famous quote (hint. think pig)

8. How would you describe Utilitarianism?

9. What are three strengths of Utilitarianism (Act or Rule)?

10. What are three Weaknesses of Utilitarianism (Act or Rule)?

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Answers

1. Felicific Calculus Р this is a calculation used by the universal hedonists to calculate how much pleasure an action produces.

2. Higher pleasure are those of the mind e.g. feelings, imagination and intellectual pursuits. Lower pleasures are bodily pleasures e.g. sex, drinking and eating.

3. Bentham’s Act utilitarianism focuses upon the quantity of pleasure and Mill’s Rule utilitarianism focuses upon the quality of pleasure.

4. Any 4 from: (i) Remoteness (ii) Certainty (iii)Fecundity (iv)Purity (v)Intensity (vi)Duration (vii) Extent

5. Bentham believes the supreme moral good is happiness and Mill disagrees saying it is justice.

6. An infirmity of the mind.

7. “It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates¬†dissatisfied than a fool satisfied”.

8. Secular, Consequentialist and Teleological theory.

9 and 10. For list of strengths and Weaknesses see my other post.

The Right to Life & Euthanasia

Euthanasia

Arguments for euthanasia

The Right to a Life 

As part of our lives we have a human right to live, this is also identified by most ethical theories such as Natural Law and Kant’s deontological theory of ethics. Dying is a part of living so the right to life prescribe a right to die. This means that people should be able to chose when to die and hence voluntary euthanasia should be allowed.

Just like we have a right to live, we also have a right not to be killed as it conflicts our right to live. This implies that other forms of euthanasia are perhaps immoral and dangerous. So there is a right not to be killed (taking life) but there is no right which says one must be saved – implying that passive forms of euthanasia are acceptable too.

It is easy to argue that active euthanasia is immoral because it is essentially killing but James Rachels (American philosopher) argues that passive was much worse. He says this is because it is long and drawn out, it brings about more suffering than necessary for the sane result – a dead patient.

Many people are frightened of accepting euthanasia because they believe it is a slippery road towards devaluing people’s lives. However, if we look at places like Netherlands and Switzerland where euthanasia is practiced the value of life is not low, not like Nazi Germany! Helga Kuhse (an Australian utilitarian and bio ethicist) advocates this view.

Patient autonomy 

John Stuart Mill would support voluntary euthanasia as he supports the argument that people should have a right to make their own decisions even about death.

Connectives & Conjunctions

The Transcript

So why should one be aware of connectives and utilise them?

Connectives are important because they allow you to make longer and more complex sentences. It helps the readers/listener understand how your two points connect together. They are also particularly important in professional environments because they show you are well-read and have more knowledge.

So in a nutshell conjunctions the help you elongate a sentence by adding clauses and phrases. However, this is done four different ways hence there are four different types of connectives.

  1. Additive– This is in essence the most simplest type. This adds details to your sentence which are not necessary for the reader/listener to know even though you may want them to know it. Examples of this include¬†‘and’ ¬†‘also’.
  2. Temporal¬†– This is another way to prolong your sentence but is done by adding details which are time-related. Examples of these include ‘after’ ‘then’
  3. Adversative¬†– This is extremely important when balancing points and relating two opposing points. So for example if you are describing impacts of a heatwave you cannot just say¬†it was good because it brought plenty of tourists in. People died. You need a word to replace that full stop to show how they connect. Examples include¬†‘however’ ‘but’
  4. Casual-¬†This is another way in which we relate two sentences. However, this time it is done through explanation. Examples include¬†‘because’ ‘therefore’